粵港澳各地的跨境交通卡的實現方式

香港/廣東

  • 互通行:(可在香港及深圳使用)內含一塊FeliCa晶片,在八達通讀卡器使用時與普通八達通無異,在深圳使用時,讀卡器使用FeliCa模式進行交易(與舊版深圳通相同,而不是新版深圳通的Type A)。該卡同時擁有八達通和深圳通的Area和System Code(FeliCa術語,即一個完全獨立的、有各自的存取條件的讀寫空間)參考
  • 八達通·嶺南通:(可在香港及支援「廣東省公交一卡通標準應用」地區使用,不包括深圳地鐵)內含兩張晶片及兩組天線,一個使用FeliCa規格,另一個使用Type A規格。事實上就是將普通八達通和普通嶺南通的內容塞進一張卡裏面。你自己拿一張一般成人版八達通和羊城通自行用膠水粘在一起也能達到同樣效果。另外本卡為本地版嶺南通,並不是交通互聯。參考
  • 八達通·嶺南通(「一卡一芯雙錢包」):(使用範圍同上)聲稱只含一張晶片和一組天線。具體情況我沒有找到,但是Sony從來都沒有推出過支援雙制式的FeliCa晶片,而FeliCa是封閉技術,不可能是國產晶片支援FeliCa,因此更有可能的是雙晶片共用一條天線。具體情況要有實物才能作準。
  • 深港一卡通:(可在香港和交通聯合城市使用,即包括深圳地鐵,但是錢包分開)本卡估計只含Type A晶片,而晶片內則含有八達通和交通聯合的儲存空間,並採用中國的PBOC 2.0標準。2021年,八達通的讀卡器陸續支援NFC Type A,因此不再必須使用FeliCa:參考。本卡背面有「D」字樣,代表本卡並沒有載有嶺南通或深圳通的程式,而只有交通聯合程式(交通聯合標記的地區應該是深圳),這代表在某些地區使用無法享受嶺南通獨有優惠(如江門)。
  • 八達通 – 全國通卡:(可在香港和交通聯合城市使用,即包括深圳地鐵,全部以港元結算)技術上與上述相同,只是使用港元結算,匯率在增值時更新,亦可使用八達通App更新。參考

以這樣的發展趨勢,八達通-澳門通是完全可行的。

澳門/廣東

  • 參考
  • 三地公交卡:(澳門,中山,珠海,同時支援閃付功能):由於支援閃付,必然使用Type A, PBOC 2.0的晶片,並載有閃付儲存空間。中山和珠海的本地卡是可以兩地共通的(不是嶺南通或交通聯合),而澳門通官網亦表示本卡為內置珠海公交通達卡。當時(2013年)本地珠海通及澳門通為使用Mifare Classic 1K。因此有珠海及澳門通共存在一個模擬Mifare卡的可能,但更有可能的是與下者相同,使用PBOC 2.0標準,載有兩地的儲存空間。
  • 粵澳公交一卡通/澳門通.嶺南通:(澳門及支援「廣東省公交一卡通標準應用」地區,亦有銀聯閃付功能)嶺南通和閃付支援代表必然使用Type A, PBOC 2.0的晶片,並載有嶺南通及閃付的儲存空間。當時(2013年)澳門通仍然使用Mifare Classic 1K,因此有可能澳門通功能是透過模擬Mifare卡實現的,但亦有可能當時的讀卡機已經更新,而只需要按照PBOC 2.0標準,加入澳門通儲存空間即可跨境使用。(普通澳門通要到2015年才開始使用PBOC 2.0標準,亦即CPU卡)

廣東/新加坡

一通粵新:(新加坡及支援「廣東省公交一卡通標準應用」地區)本地的EZ-Link為使用Type B技術,理論上不太可能與Type A的嶺南通用一張晶片實現。因此,更有可能的是EZ-Link讀卡器支援Type A(大部分的讀卡器都應同時支援兩個技術),並在一塊Type A晶片中同時載有嶺南通的PBOC 2.0錢包和EZ-Link (CEPAS)的儲存空間。因Type A/B不同FeliCa,只是無線傳輸編碼方式不同,儲存空間和指令都可以是一樣(FeliCa則有完全不同的儲存格式和指令格式),因此並不需要為了本卡而做大更改。參考

While I'm sure that switching away from the use of words like "blacklist" will not do anything regarding racial equality, but since we're at it, can't we choose a less ambiguous alternative?

The current alternatives like "allowlist", "trusted list", "blocklist", "denylist" all have alternative connotations and can not be replaced one-to-one.

Therefore, I propose the terms "greenlist" and "redlist".

How to buy a (physical) PASMO and Suica in 2024

Even though the official sites and notices in stations are all trying to convince you that there is no way you can buy a PASMO and Suica right now, scaring all visitors away, there are still many ways you can buy one now.

Recommendations

Suica/PASMO for Tourists: Welcome Suica / PASMO PASSPORT

This is the officially recommended way, even though they are sold in just a few locations. Also, they expire after 28 days and you cannot refund the unused charged money inside, so I personally do not recommend this. For those working and studying, this is basically useless. You can check out their official sites for where you can still buy them: PASMO PASSPORT, Welcome Suica

Regular Suica: JR East Travel Service Center

As JR did not announce this at all and just secretly updated their visitor-facing website, it got little media attention. I went to ask the staff a while ago, and I was told that even though they are intended only for tourists, they will not check for documents like passports. This is probably your best bet if you happen to be in one of the stations. Check this link out: JR East Travel Service Center.

Regular Suica: buy a 1-day pass

This approach has the benefit that it can be bought in basically every single JR East station. Even though the official website mentioned that only children and monthly pass Suica are still sold, 1-day passes can also be issued on a new Suica. So if your trip has a day where using a one-day JR pass is beneficial (if you live in the west side like Nakano, a round-trip to Kasai Rinkai Park is already worth the cost of the Tokunai Pass!), go to a black ticket machine (that sells monthly pass), and choose the option that issues a new Suica. Check the following video but choose the new Suica option instead!

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Probably the only way to buy a regular PASMO: One-day pass

Continue reading "How to buy a (physical) PASMO and Suica in 2024"

2024年買 PASMO 和 Suica(西瓜卡) 的方法

雖然官方網站和車站各處還是都是標貼 Suica 和 PASMO 停售的通告,對沒有 iPhone 或日本 Android 手機的人很是嚇人,但是大家也知道是有辦法的。在本文我想總結一下已知的購買交通系IC卡的方法和已經失效的方法,其中購買 PASMO 的方法更是不見有人提起,而且昨天(2月24日)親身測試成功!

如果會去日本其他地區,或者有iPhone

有 iPhone 8或日本售賣的iPhone 7 或 Android手機,可以考慮使用Mobile Suica。

可以考慮入東京前先在當地的火車站買以下的IC 卡,在全國都能通用的:

  • toica
  • ICOCA
  • manaca
  • SUGOCA
  • nimoca
  • Hayakaken
  • Kitaca

遊客版 Suica/PASMO:Welcome Suica / PASMO PASSPORT

專為遊客推出的 Welcome Suica 和 PASMO PASSPORT 是官方建議的方式,但28天後就失效而且不能退餘額非常麻煩,對來日本留學工作的人也毫無用處。但是適合的話可以參考以下連結:PASMO PASSPORTWelcome Suica

普通 Suica:JR東日本旅行服務中心

因為JR方面非常神秘,只是偷偷更新了旅客網站,因此只有很少網站有提起。據本人到現場的詢問,雖然理論上只能讓遊客購買,但是不會檢查護照等文件,但只能購買一張。不過能購買的地方只有幾個,還是有點麻煩。可以參考以下連結:JR東日本旅行服務中心

普通 Suica:購買一日乘車票

雖然官方通告提起只有兒童和「定期票」(即月票)還有繼續發行 Suica,但是一日乘車票等卻沒有提起,但其實是包括的。所以如果有一天行程有適合的 JR 一日券(760yen可以任意乘搭JR在東京23區的路線很划算啊!如果住西面的話來回一次葛西臨海公園就已經超過回本了),就可以在車站用黑色(能買定期券)售票機,選擇購買一日票然後選擇發行新的 Suica。用法可以參考以下影片,但是到選擇是否用原本的 Suica 的時候要選擇新Suica!

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可能是唯一購買普通 PASMO 的方法:購買一日券

有些人可能因各種原因(好看?想買京王+東京Metro一日券?)想買 PASMO 而不要 Suica。原理與 Suica 一日券相同,方法也差不多。但是不同的是 PASMO 有很多使用的公司,而有些公司的售票機可能不賣 PASMO,而每間公司的界面也有點不同。

Continue reading "2024年買 PASMO 和 Suica(西瓜卡) 的方法"

澳門輕軌的世界極品動態路線圖 - 有十年時間都無心改善

2019年通車的澳門輕軌氹仔線不知道大家搭過了沒有?從通車當天起就已經被人恥笑的,非車廂內如小畫家般的界面設計莫屬,被大陸的地鐵迷稱爲「ppt報站」,甚至見過真的用PowerPoint模擬出同樣效果的。

小學生電腦課應該都能設計出來的簡陋設計。圖片由維基媒體用戶LN9267拍攝,以CC BY-SA 4.0條款授權。

原本考慮到輕軌公司在2019年是剛成立,可能有其他更重要的工作而無暇兼顧這些小事(雖然明明可以讓港鐵澳門協助設計,港鐵澳門設計的各種標識和單張明顯好看很多)。但是現在已經又過了4年,其中還包括停運半年修復電纜和疫情時期極少人乘搭的兩年,甚至連延伸至媽閣站,必須更新系統的大好機會仍不肯改個稍爲好看一點點的設計(就算只是改個好看點的字體已經很棒了)。但是考慮到未來可能很快就要連通石排灣和橫琴站,可能到時候再大改,我又再忍了下來。

直到我今天無意中看到2012年輕軌1:1列車模型展覽,當中的界面設計竟然和現在的一模一樣以後,我是無法再忍下去了。

當年只是爲了示範而隨便設計個畫面固然沒有問題,但是相信沒有人認爲這樣子的設計是在正經的運營路線上是可以接受的吧?!

具體問題我就不說了,有點審美意識的一眼就已經能看出好幾個問題。

所以輕軌公司是要有多懶?反正我是忍不了了,就希望明年港鐵退場、兩線通車之前能請港鐵搞搞吧。。。

Random #5: Make YouTube great again!

My YouTube Home feed has more than 50% of the videos from channels I'm not even subscribed to, while many subscribed channels simply do not appear on my feed.

The shift in recent years in social media from "telling the system what you like" to "system telling you what you like" is troublesome. The fact is we know what we want, and not watching a certain channel for a few weeks doesn't mean we will never want to watch it (that's what the Unlike or Unsubscribe button is for!).

I argue that there are two types of content that one watches: funny, quick, one-off content, and actually interesting, lengthy, in-depth content. Examples of the former includes (and these are directly from my YouTube feed right now) Microsoft Sam Beatbox Duet, 1996 Pontiac Grand Pix Recall: interesting for when you are relaxing, but I basically don't want to see anything like it anymore after watching it. Examples of the latter would be: The Impact of 6GHz on Network Design, PS5 Slim First Look and TEARDOWN!!, or I Visited the Most Depressing Town in Singapore.

Suggesting new content is great to help discover new channels and give visibility to new creators, but there is a limit to it: there is a reason a user decide to subscribe to a channel instead of just watching it and leave, and since the algorithm does not know how the user liked it or not (who cares about the like button anymore??), it is idiotic to suggest this much new content to a user just because the user fell for two clickbaity videos two times in a row.

Going back to the two types of content. Please, only ever suggest a few of the first type, and never the same topic over and over. For the second type, please, prioritize what we literally said we liked, instead of filling my entire feed with train videos (yes I like trains, but I also like many other things that I literally told the algorithm by subscribing).

Thanks for listening. After seeing the 20th Burger King Pokeball recall advertisement parody being suggested just because a few weeks ago I felt bored and watched a few in a row, I decided that I have to write something about this.

Transferring file over high-bandwidth, high-latency link - bbcp

As you might know, I live in Canada while my home server is located in Macau. Both sides have decent internet connection: 150Mbps symmetrical in Macau, 350/100Mbps in Canada. While not crazy fast, this is fast enough for most cases, even for transferring large files. But there is a problem: I can never get this speed...

Speed test from my computer in Canada to my server in Macau via LibreSpeed. Look at that juicy ping and revolutionary upload speed...

The problem

The problem is simple: I can download from my home server somehow close to the limit (150Mbps) but I can only upload at less than 10% of theoretical upload speed, seemingly for no reason.

The investigation

I tried running speedtest from Canada to different hosts in Macau: different ISPs, my server with LibreSpeed, my server with iperf. I found that I only get good speeds when I use multiple connections: multi connection feature on Speedtest.net, iperf with LOTS of parallel streams.

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澳門公共天線的前世今生(三):香港慈雲山的覆蓋範圍

跳出原有的安排,寫個短篇。最近發現了 Radio Mobile 的軟件,原為業餘無線電愛好者的工具,但其電腦版本亦可用作電視發射站的覆蓋範圍分析。由於軟件已經極度過時,操作極為不方便,也不見得是最好的選擇,故不詳細介紹。

在此向 Radio Mobile 開發者 Roger Coude (VE2DBE)、全球地形圖 ALOS World 3D-30m (AW3D30) 提供者日本宇宙航空研究開發機構 (JAXA) 及 OpenStreetMap 貢獻者致謝。

紅色代表信號最好,橙色黃色其次,綠藍等顏色則代表信號非常差。

Continue reading "澳門公共天線的前世今生(三):香港慈雲山的覆蓋範圍"